Wānanga deliver education through multiple sites, often using community resources to support teaching and learning. While the wānanga sector is smaller than the institutes of technology and polytechnics (ITPs) and university sectors, it contributes significantly to the tertiary sector via its distinctive approach to teaching and learning, the areas in which it works and the groups with whom it works. Wānanga attract many first-time tertiary learners, both Māori and non-Māori, at foundation-level study. They are expected to support these learners on to higher levels of study.
The wānanga sector delivers education from over 600 sites throughout New Zealand, including approximately 150 marae-based sites. While each wānanga is unique, they are expected to contribute to the tertiary education sector and to support the priorities in the Tertiary Education Strategy (TES). Wānanga also play an important role in re-engaging learners in education.
The TES defines the core roles and Government expectations for wānanga as:
|Core roles||Government expectations|
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Wānanga advance the Government’s TES priorities by:
The wānanga sector improved its performance on all of the educational performance indicators compared with 2012
In 2013 highlights across the wānanga sector included:
In 2013 the wānanga sector received $158.6 million in Government funding (6% of all Government funding for tertiary education organisations) and continued to make a significant contribution to tertiary education, particularly for Māori and Pasifika learners. The wānanga sector improved its performance on all of the educational performance indicators (EPIs) compared with 2012. The wānanga sector’s financial performance declined slightly in 2013 compared with the previous year.
Key challenges for wānanga during 2013 included continuing to:
The mix of delivery across the levels of study remained the same in 2013. The majority of wānanga delivery was at Levels 3–4 (50%) and Levels 1–2 (29%) (see figure 37). Wānanga increased their delivery across all levels except Levels 1–2 (down by 786 EFTS), which can be attributed to the introduction of competitive Levels 1–2. Enrolments across Levels 3–6 increased by 753 EFTS, while Level 7 and above increased by 182 EFTS.
In 2013 the largest proportion of EFTS in the wānanga sector was in Society and Culture (52%), followed by Management and Commerce (23%), and Creative Arts (10%). Society and Culture dropped slightly (by 2%, 304 EFTS) on the previous year, while Health increased (by 1%, 205 EFTS) (see figure 38).
Increased enrolments of Māori and Pasifika students in wānanga
The number of Māori EFTS enrolled at wānanga increased in 2013 by 392 EFTS and the number of Pasifika enrolled increased by 127 EFTS.
Overall, achievement improved across the wānanga in 2013 for all students including the TES priority groups (see figure 40).
TES Priority: Increasing the number of young people achieving qualifications at Level 4 and above, particularly degrees
Students under the age of 25 accounted for 17 percent of all 2013 wānanga enrolments, an increase of 130 EFTS compared with 2012. Course completions improved among this group (from 76% to 77%) as did qualification completions (from 60% to 67%), student retention (from 62% to 65%) and student progression (steady at 38%) (see figure 41). In 2013, the wānanga sector enrolled 398 students in Youth Guarantee programmes, which target young people with low prior educational attainment.
Youth Guarantee students in the wānanga sector achieved 72 percent in course completions and 62 percent in qualification completions in 2013.
Youth achievement at Level 4 and above continued to increase or remain steady, with course completion at 77 percent in 2013 as it was in 2012, qualification completion up from 55 percent in 2012 to 63 percent in 2013, student retention up from 64 percent in 2012 to 66 percent in 2013 and student progression steady at 38 percent in 2013 as it was in 2012.
TES Priority: Increasing the number of Māori students enjoying success at higher levels
The number of Māori enrolments increased by 392 EFTS or two percentage points compared with 2012 (see figure 42). Nearly half of all Māori enrolments were at Levels 3–4 (46%). There was a decrease in participation at Levels 1–2 (by 255 EFTS) but an increase in participation at Levels 5–6 (438 EFTS) and Levels 9–10 (106 EFTS).
Achievement continued to improve for Māori, with qualification completion up from 63 percent in 2012 to 74 percent in 2013, student retention up from 65 percent in 2012 to 67 percent in 2013 and student progression up from 65 percent in 2012 to 67 percent in 2013. Course completion remained steady at the 2012 level (78%).
TES Priority: Increasing the number of Pasifika students achieving at higher levels
Pasifika course and qualification completions improved
In 2013 Pasifika participation increased by one percentage point (127 EFTS), accounting for 10 percent of total enrolments (see figure 43). The distribution of Pasifika students across the levels of study also remained similar to 2012, with slight decreases at Levels 1–2.
On average, Pasifika achievement was higher in the wananga sector in comparison to other sectors. Pasifika course completions improved in 2013 (from 78% to 81%) as did qualification completions (from 65% to 76%) while student retention remained steady and there was some slippage in student progression.
Figure 43: Wānanga participation and achievement by Pasifika students, 2012 and 2013
TES Priority: Strengthening research outcomes
Wānanga undertake research that advances and disseminates knowledge, develops intellectual independence and helps the application of āhuatanga Māori and tikanga Māori.
The volume of postgraduate enrolments across the wānanga sector increased
The volume of postgraduate enrolments across the wānanga sector increased in 2013, accounting for one percent (321 EFTS) of all wānanga enrolments. Funding for the Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF) is allocated according to three elements: quality evaluation, research degree completions and external research income. Wānanga received 0.2 percent of the available PBRF funding in 2012, while accounting for 24 research degree completions and generating $0.27 million in external research income.
In 2013 the wānanga sector saw a decline in profitability, with the net surplus reducing by $6.7 million to $8.4 million. The sector remained above the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC) low risk guideline, with a net surplus of 4.23 percent. Despite an increase in Government funding and international revenue total revenue fell by $0.6 million largely driven by a reduction in other income primarily relating to reduced interest revenue. Operating expenditure increased by $3.5 million, primarily driven by increased personnel expenditure. Total assets increased by $7.9 million, driven by increases in the value of property, plant, equipment and intangibles.
|Key Performance Metrics||2011||2012||2013||TEC Minimum |
|Net surplus (after unusual and non-recurring items)||5.0%||7.5%||4.2%||3.0%|
|Net cashflow from operations||114.7%||114.3%||109.3%||111.0%|
|3-Year average return on property, plant equipment and intangibles||11.3%||14.6%||9.3%||4.5%|
|Summary Financial Statements |
|2011||2012||2013||% of 2013 |
|Total government revenue||$169,882||$169,366||$169,953||86%|
|Domestic student fees||$13,632||$11,312||$11,248||6%|
|International student fees||$420||$681||$1,014||1%|
|Other income (including research)||$16,915||$17,231||$15,751||8%|
|Property plant equipment and intangibles||$128,035||$138,476||$147,316||48%|
|Equity (net assets)||$246,796||$256,495||$265,016|
In 2013 the TEC allocated $169.6 million in Government funding to wānanga. The majority went to Teaching and Learning ($167.8 million) and the remainder to Capability ($1.5 million), and Research ($318,066) (see figure 44).
Wānanga will be required to focus on the following key areas in 2014 and beyond to support TES priorities: